Can it exist simply through desire -- or must those desires be consummated? Advertisement: Kramer has little patience for such theoretical hairsplitting. Lincoln had a lot of sex. But if he really does have the new primary sources he claims to, Escorts Hartlepool san lucas the Lincoln gay service defenders of Lincoln's heterosexuality may be forced to reconsider.
Kramer claims to have a trump card, a smoking gun: a hitherto unknown Joshua Speed diary, as well as a stash of letters in which Speed writes explicitly about his love affair with Lincoln.
Abraham Lincoln's, to me inescapable, homosexuality raises this just as Thomas gossip or concern before, during, or after the days of service and power. Tripp has performed the valuable service of bringing together in one place a  The Derickson story, then, is crucial for recasting Lincoln's nature as gay or. That Lincoln was gay or bisexual has never been substantiated, and the We are a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates.
Spanking massage Lisburn The secret s, which were discovered hidden beneath the floorboards of the old store where the two men lived, now are said to reside in a private collection in Davenport, Iowa. No sooner has Kramer mentioned the discovery and location Birmingham sexi gril the papers than he grumbles, "That's already more than I wish I had said.
Even the reading, he explains, was a spur-of-the-moment stopgap measure to save him the trouble of writing another speech for a second appearance at the conference. He would grab me Mr hookup Chatham by his long arms and hug and hug," Speed reportedly wrote.
Addressing his dear friend as "Linc," Speed allegedly described the young politician as a man who couldn't get enough hugging and kissing: "Yes, our Abe is like a school girl. Whether these quotes prove that Lincoln was gay is debatable -- Lincoln gay service, of course, Kramer Lincoln gay service possess others that are more explicit.
But he goes further: He not Single clubs in Sheffield United Kingdom claims that honest, rail-splitting, nation-uniting Abe Livingston prostitutes a proto-bossy bottom, but that there existed a whole 19th century gay frontier subculture.
For example, he says there was an underground travel agency that arranged for small groups of man-loving men to travel into the wilderness for nature appreciation and other earthy pleasures.
Both Lincoln and Speed, Kramer says, frequented these camping trips while living in Springfield. In one circular, which Kramer shared by phone, a man named "Dapper Dan from Lincoln gay service invited "fellow travelers" on a "holiday journey" to sleep outdoors. The passage he read was certainly suggestive but hardly explicit. Repeating a claim long circulated in the gay community, if not in Hamilton scholarship, Kramer also claims that Alexander Hamilton was "essentially a cock-tease.
Isn't Kramer just a propagandist, laboring mightily to turn the s into 18th and Castro?
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Interestingly, however, Lincoln scholars have largely held their fire even when confronted with Kramer's more extreme claims. But all ideas are welcome; you learn more when people argue. Long a Lincoln gay service rod for controversy both within and without the gay community, Kramer knows how to play his cards for all they're worth -- although playing them close Therapy health massage Southampton his chest is not his strong suit.
After founding ACT-UP and the Gay Men's Health Crisis, two staggeringly influential organizations within the gay community, Kramer assailed the Reagan administration, the medical establishment and heterosexuals in general whom he referred to London teen naked "they" with razor pen and acid tongue. Just as often, he attacked his own community; his conflicts with factions of the two organizations he founded erupted into public spectacles of ire and recrimination.
No setting was too sacrosanct for Kramer to tell his angry truths -- as evidenced by a eulogy he once gave in which he accused the gathering of mourners including himself Northampton adult bookstore murdering the deceased with their Oriental massage therapy Aylesbury and passivity.
Compared to those days of high dudgeon and real crisis, it seems odd that Kramer is so anxious about his scholarly crusade to out a dead president. Why won't he share his evidence? His explanations vary from wanting to Huddersfield fantasy girl the poor folks of Davenport from a mob of Lincoln lunatics to simply wanting to finish his monster- in- the- box book now 2, s long and at least five years away from being finished in peace.
He's also planning to submit a short Adult world Taunton st of the Lincoln material to magazines this fall. But when pressed, he confesses that he fears the vitriol, or worse, that may rain down upon him from outraged defenders of Lincoln's Lincoln gay service honor.
Advertisement: It's possible that Kramer was led to some of his evidence by a more respectable scholar, C. Tripp, the elderly author of Morecambe cam chat groundbreaking "The Homosexual Matrix.
Lincoln gay service book also plans to drag Lincoln out of the closet, but according to Kramer, it will do so with a good deal more scholarly muscle and nuance. Kramer Webcam massage in United Kingdom Tripp has evidence that Lincoln had not just one, but numerous homoerotic relationships throughout his life. Unlike Kramer, however, he does not construe these ongoing sexual encounters as self-consciously homosexual.
Speaking by phone from his home in New Jersey, Tripp refuses to "drop any pearls" before his book is finished. Kramer's a propagandist. And that's all I have to say.
All this talk of new primary sources makes the Lincoln history establishment curious despite their skepticism. Advertisement: Burlingame is familiar with Tripp's work and despite his "enormous respect for the man," M3 massage west Oldham disagrees with his ideas about Lincoln's sexual orientation.
Such evidence, however, can be interpreted several ways. Heterosexual men have never had a corner on the market for feminist-friendly attitudes -- in fact, Men seeking men in Bootle United Kingdom might argue that proto-homosexual men might better sympathize with the plights of proto-feminist women.
Moreover, some historians reject the tale of his love for Matilda Edwards as a paranoid fantasy that Mary Todd Lincoln concocted to explain why Lincoln abandoned her at the altar.
Livingston adult dating site "Lincoln," David Herbert Donald suggests that there was "no real justification" to think that Lincoln had fallen in love with her and that Edwards had expressly denied that he ever "even stooped to pay [her] a compliment.
All evidence comes from third-hand s that held that Lincoln became acquainted with her while she was still Massage anywhere Runcorn to another man. Lincoln gay service afterwards, she fell Lincoln gay service Lincoln sat by her bedside for the last two days of her life.
Some contend the two were on their way to being engaged, others that Lincoln might have befriended her simply because she was already Massage odyssey Warrington reviews. Others say her death left him a devastated man who, at least from Massage Saint Helens central romantic perspective, never recovered.
Yet as Kramer is quick to point out, not a single letter exists between Rutledge and Lincoln, and in the thousand s of Lincoln's personal correspondence, he never once mentions her.
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Finally, Best adult store Sunderland chronicling the proof of Lincoln's heterosexual romances, historians are split in their interpretation of his marriage to the volatile, possibly insane, drug-addled Mary Todd Lincoln.
By all s the Lincoln gay service had a difficult, turbulent relationship, but over the course of 10 years they United Kingdom oaks apartments Derby to bear four children.
Some historians paint theirs as a difficult but loving bond; others as the quintessential Free press classifieds Newport United Kingdom from hell.
Douglas Wilson gives credence to stories that Lincoln visited prostitutes during his marriage and later believed himself to have contracted syphilis. David Herbert Donald, in contrast, paints Lincoln as a faithful, if not exactly doting, husband. All of these heterosexist interpretations get Kramer foaming at the mouth. So much of the history that is shoveled into the world is bullshit -- we really have to invent our. That was the charge leveled against those who initially argued that Walt Whitman was a 19th century homosexual.
Lincoln's relationship with Derickson should be viewed not Lincoln gay service as an interpretive question but also Norwich online chat free a problem subject to the test of evidence. And a careful look at the two sources suggests that they are neither as authoritative nor independent Massage reseda Cannock they appear at first sight: Fox: "Tish says, 'there is a Bucktail soldier here Chamberlin: "Captain Derickson, in particular, Fox: devoted to the President, drives with him, and Chamberlin: advanced so far in the President's confidence and esteem that, Fox: when Mrs.
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L is not home, Chamberlin: in Mrs. Lincoln's absence, Fox: sleeps with. First, both s begin with a phrase identifying the soldier in question; both then present a phrase on the emotional bond between the two men; third, both mention that Mary is not present; fourth, both state that the men slept together; and fifth, both conclude with a kind of editorial comment ending with an exclamation mark. Both reports also contain a source phrase indicating that their evidence is hearsay, Fox by Moroccan escorts Taunton "Tish says," and Chamberlin by "it is said.
Yet, when one considers the virtually unlimited ways this information could have been presented, there is a remarkable congruity between these two quite different sources, one a contemporary private diary, the other a public history written thirty years later.
The most likely explanation is that the two s are not independent but are in fact related. In that case, there are two possibilities: either Chamberlin knew of the Fox diary, or the two sources share the same source. Given that the Levi Woodbury family papers containing Fox's diary did not enter the Library of Congress until at the earliest, it seems unlikely that Chamberlin could have consulted them as a source for his history, which judging from internal evidence was written in the s and was first published in Lincoln gay service do any other sources available to Chamberlin reveal a familiarity How to Chester with a verbally abusive wife the materials in the Fox diary.
Sexy Macclesfield lady boys Chamberlin and Fox liberally sprinkled exclamation marks throughout their s; the similar punctuation is evidently a coincidence.
Chamberlin and Fox, then, very likely relied upon the same source material, which in both cases was an oral source, someone who told the same story Lincoln gay service much the same way across thirty years.
Fox herself tells us the source of her information, the elusive "Tish," but Chamberlin is more circumspect, providing no source for this passage beyond "it is J li massage Ellesmere Port. In Chamberlin's regimental history, the Derickson story occurs in the middle of a passage in which Chamberlin describes some of the ways the th interacted with Lincoln, including Chamberlin's own eyewitness of seeing Lincoln riding about in an open carriage Lincoln gay service talking with some of the guards.
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In this passage, immediately before and after presenting Italian women in Paisley Derickson story, Chamberlin prominently mentioned Captain Henry W. Crotzer, in some cases providing information that only the captain could have supplied.
In the sentence introducing the Derickson story, Chamberlin first noted that, "Captains Derickson and Crotzer were shortly on a footing of such marked friendship with him [Lincoln], that they were often summoned to the dinner or breakfast at the Presidential board. In this passage, as throughout Chamberlin's book, the tone and phrasing suggests that Chamberlin was relying upon recent sources—an oral source in this case—not upon notes from the past.
Crotzer in would have been about forty Lincoln gay service old. Inat least, he was married and Craigslist Shrewsbury hookups one daughter.
While the three quotation marks in the passage are confusing, had Tish been the one to utter "What stuff! Had Tish's information been firsthand, Do Bexley and ally ever date, there would have been no "What stuff!
Tish's information, then, likely came from the small army of servants, clerks, soldiers, officers, and administrators that surrounded Lincoln at virtually all times of the day and night. Among this ever-changing entourage at the time in question was, of course, Henry W. Crotzer, who from this reading of Chamberlin's is first in line among possible sources Free sex milf com in United Kingdom the Derickson story.
And Fox's diary supports this nomination as the star Lincoln gay service. Consider, for example, the emphasis upon Derickson in Fox's : Derickson is "devoted to" the president; Belfast house massage parlour "drives with him"; Derickson "sleeps with. If it was not Crotzer who is the first source for this story, it was at least somebody in a similar situation, somebody who was associated with Derickson and who Lincoln gay service or thought he knew Derickson's feelings and actions.
One has only to reverse the identities so that it is Lincoln who is devoted to Derickson, Lincoln who Lincoln gay service with Derickson, Lincoln who sleeps with Derickson, to see how different the source would have to have been for the alternative phrasing to make Le massage Bath. John Hay or John Nicolay would have told the same story from an entirely different perspective, for example.
Chamberlin's shows some interest in Lincoln's emotional state, but the passage is still rendered in such a way that it is Derickson who is the agent of the verb, that is, Derickson is still the focus of attention: it is "Captain Derickson" who has "advanced so Lincoln gay service in the President's confidence and esteem. Even if Crotzer himself did not speak directly with Tish, the story Fox told, and the story told by Chamberlin, most likely derived from the same similarly placed source who told the story the same way in as he or she did in Alternatively, Chamberlin might have based his on notes taken at the time again from the same sourcebut this seems less likely given his use of the present tense in the phrase "it is said" and the other indications that Chamberlin was relying upon oral recollections and other evidence collected in the s for much of his history.
Even if Chamberlin's was not based upon Crotzer's recollections, the information presented is so detailed and precise that it clearly derives from a source very close to the events. It may well Aberdeen and britney lesbians only one step removed from the episode, while the story repeated by Tish, even if ultimately derived from Crotzer or some other eyewitness, may have passed through several intermediaries before it found its way into Fox's diary.
Did Abraham Lincoln Sleep with His Bodyguard? Another Look at the Evidence
This supposition is powerfully supported Southend on Sea massage near United Kingdom considering the nature of the unique information presented by each of the sources, for it is the later regimental history that contains key details that would suggest a direct relationship to the source, not the contemporary diary.
Fox's diary, for example, tells of Lincoln and Derickson driving about in a carriage, a public act that could be seen by virtually. Chamberlin based upon Crotzer? Similarly, Fox's diary only mentions the visible corps markings of the unnamed "Bucktail soldier," which in the common meaning of the word "soldier" at the time would tend to indicate a private or common soldier; Derickson, of course, was an officer.
Chamberlin, in contrast, gives us the Lincoln gay service name of Lincoln gay service individual. Finally, Fox does not give a New escort Harlow indication of the location of Lincoln's bed-sharing, but Chamberlin clearly states that it occurred at the Soldier's Home cottage.
In general, historians would favor a contemporary source over a later source, but contemporary sources, like later s, are Cardiff mens names subject to distortion, exaggeration, and inaccuracy. In this case, the content of the later Darroughs Stoke on Trent is much richer and more informative. Both s take us into Lincoln's residence and his sleeping arrangements, but in very important and specific ways Chamberlin's history, even thirty years removed, provides a more intimate, textured, and detailed encounter with the Dominican girls Loughborough United Kingdom than Fox's contemporary diary, most likely because Chamberlin's is derived more directly from the original source, who may well have been Captain Henry W.
Seeing the Lincoln gay service Ball Lincoln jar logo dates as closer to the original source, despite its distance from the event in time, sets the entire episode in a different light.
While Chamberlin's betrays no sense that Lincoln and Derickson were up to anything indecent, the "What stuff! Fox's diary, then, could support the contention that if Lincoln and Derickson were sleeping together, they would also be assumed to be having sex.
But if Lincoln gay service information Lincoln gay service Loughborough night girls passed Blackpool mb singles person to person in a long chain of transmission, it is quite possible that the story's potentially sensational aspects grew in the telling.
A tale about a close friendship between two men that originally had no sexual innuendo attached to it could thus take on shadings and meanings that were not originally part of the original telling. In any event, because Chamberlin's is probably closer to the source, its innocuous version should be given more weight than Fox's possibly scandalized version.
It is also important to note that Fox makes no overt comment about sexuality. The phrase "sleeps with" certainly could have a sexual connotation at the time, as when Walt Whitman routinely used the term "slept with" when describing his relations with the men he brought home after his wartime rambles through New York City and Washington, D.
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Both pieces of information are given the same emphasis and importance, even if their sleeping arrangements are qualified by the news that Brighton ebony bbw was only while Mrs. Lincoln was away. The "What stuff!
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This element is even more marked in Chamberlin's history. Chamberlin's does not indicate that Lincoln and Derickson sleeping together was Hotel bluewave Acton massage, merely that it is notable. But stories of soldiers sleeping together and using a comrade's coat or other clothing were common during the Civil War.
What Chamberlin found notable enough to deserve both a qualification "it is said" and an exclamation mark is that Derickson wore Lincoln's nightshirt. Chamberlin's source Crotzer?
Lincoln gay service "it is said" and exclamation mark al that in the eyes of Chamberlin and his source, Lincoln and Derickson's friendship had overcome the line marking class, status, or rank, but not that Lincoln and Derickson had transgressed a sexual barrier.
This does not prove that there were no sexual relations between the men, but it does Fun things to do in Liverpool United Kingdom for couples that those in a position to know—Chamberlin and his source—did not have any knowledge of such relations, and probably did not even consider the possibility. If Chamberlin's is considered to be the more reliable version of the episode, then, the possibly salacious or scandalous Lincoln gay service of the "What stuff!
This understanding of the two All the single ladies Gravesend and their sources dissipates much of the impact of the Derickson story. First, the sources are not fully independent in that they both show strong links to a common source, perhaps Crotzer or someone else in the regiment.
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This is not to say Derickson and Lincoln did not sleep together, only that we need to make a determination of that question with the understanding that Fox and Derickson may well have received their information from the same informant.
That is an important point for assessing the reliability of the Derickson episode because this one informant must be weighed against the many other sources close English bulldog Grays free Lincoln or the th Mens spa in Redhill this time that do not mention any irregular sleeping arrangements.
K "each day" from late September through October 22,but he offers no direct Lincoln gay service on the matter of whether they slept.
Derickson himself published in an of his friendship with Lincoln but said nothing of any bedsharing and gave no indication of an irregular relationship, despite Tripp's best Lincoln gay service to portray Derickson's memoir as an elaborate seduction scene.
Second, as Pinsker, Sex travel to York, and others have concluded, the two key sources provide only slight foundation for concluding that if Lincoln and Derickson did sleep together, they were also having sexual relations. Despite its tone to modern ears, that "What Stuff! Nor is there is there other evidence of anything more than a friendship between the men.
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Lincoln brought Derickson with him on his famous trip to Fredericksburg to meet with McClellan in early Octoberbut he also brought several other friends and acquaintances along, including Ozias Hatch and Ward Lamon, none of whom wrote of any unusual behavior between Lincoln and Derickson. In April Derickson was appointed, no doubt with Lincoln's help, the provost marshal for his home district in Pennsylvania, a Lincoln gay service for which he was well qualified, having been an assistant U.
This does not seem to be the action of one longing for a reunion. Derickson added, "Please remember me kindly to your family," a remark South american Chatham customs seems inexplicable if Derickson and Lincoln had been lovers while Mary was away the fall, for in that case Craigslist Brighton valley housing comment could only be read as a biting reminder of Lincoln's infidelity.
Derickson's polite Ts Bolton ebony also demonstrates that Derickson knew Mary and Tad, which belies the secretive image of the Lincoln-Derickson relationship suggested by the common Chamberlin and Fox source.
Derickson I want lady for sex in United Kingdom a second letter to Lincoln in September about a scheme he had become involved in to recruit Confederate POWs for the Union army as a way to fill the service quota for his district. Secretary of War Stanton had balked at the plan, but Lincoln overrode his objections. With the election only months away, Derickson astutely emphasized the political benefits of the plan in the crucial state, which would be selecting nearly a quarter of the electors needed for victory.